Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes, endnotes and Harvard citations

(Extract from Essay Writing for Students, Brigid Ballard, Longman, South Melbourne, Appendix 14)

References

In an academic essay whenever you are

  • quoting the exact words of another writer;
  • closely summarising a passage from another writer;
  • using an idea or material which is directly based on the work of another writer;

then you must identify and acknowledge your source in a systematic style of referencing. Otherwise you may be accused of plagiarism.

The three most common styles for references to printed and electronic materials are: footnotes, endnotes, and the Harvard system. Different departments within the university may favour different styles, so it is essential that you check on the preferred format for each program in which you are studying. Essays in literary criticism, for example, in which frequent reference is made to the same literary text, have their own characteristic style of citation.

In general, your aim must be to include in your reference list all the information that is necessary for your reader to trace the source of your material easily and accurately.

Footnotes and endnotes

 

The first two systems of referencing, footnotes and endnotes, are very similar: in both you insert a number (either in brackets or slightly above the line) in your text at the end of a sentence or immediately following a direct quotation or a point taken from a source. For footnotes these numbers may either run consecutively through the whole essay or start afresh with (1) at the start of each new page; for endnotes the numbering is always consecutive. With footnotes the information about the source of each numbered reference is given at the bottom of each page of your text; with endnotes the same information is given in a consolidated list at the end of the essay.

Format: The following points should be noted, both for use in your own essays and to enable you to interpret the footnotes and endnotes you encounter in your reading:

  1. On a first citation of a work, full details, as in the bibliography, must be given, together with a precise page reference, for example, ‘R. Beard (1970), Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Penguin, London, p. 49.’
  2. Subsequent references to the same work may be cited by:
    • short form: the writer’s name, the short title, and the page number,
      • e.g. Beard, Teaching and Learning, pp. 89-91.
    • op.cit.: (i.e. opere citato, Latin, ‘in the work cited’) This is used following the writer’s name and followed by the page reference when the citation is to the same work referred to in earlier but not in the immediately preceding footnote. It may or may not be underlined, e.g.,
    1. M. Douglas (1973), Natural Symbols, Penguin, London, p.88.
    2. R. Fox (1967), Kinship and Marriage, Penguin, London, p.161.
    3. M. Douglas, op.cit., p.132.
    • ibid.: (i.e. ibidem, Latin, ‘in the same place’) This is used, with a following page number, when the citation is to the same work referred to in the immediately preceding footnote. It may or may not be underlined, e.g.,
      1. M. Douglas (1973), Natural Symbols, Penguin, London, p.68
      2. ibid., pp. 70-71,
      3. ibid., p. 173
  3. Other common abbreviations in references:
    • loc.cit. (loco citato, ‘in the place already quoted’) has confused usage (and you would probably be wise to avoid it in your own writing). It is sometimes used in place of op.cit. when the reference is to an article or chapter rather than a book. It is sometimes used in place of ibid. when the citation is to the same source and the same page as the immediately preceding reference. It is sometimes used in place of op.cit. when the citation is to the same page as the previous citation to the same source.
    • f. (or ff.) (‘and the following page(s)’) is used to indicate frequent references to an item within a few consecutive pages, e.g. R. Fox, Kinship and Marriage, p. 71f.
    • passim (‘scatteredly’) is used when the reference is to items to be found throughout that source or that section of a book. E.g. Beard, Teaching and Learning, passim.
  4. Complex references. If you are citing a quotation or material which you have found already quoted by another writer, include in your citation both the full bibliographic details of the original quotation (which you will find in the reference) and the details of the book in which you found it, e.g. H. Cox (1968), The Secular City, Penguin, London, p. 93, quoted in M. Douglas (1973), Natural Symbols, Penguin, London, p. 37.

 

Included references (Harvard, In-text, Author:Date)

 

In this third style of referencing, which is commonly used in science and the social sciences, all references are cited in the body of your text. The references are extremely brief (writer’s family name, date of publication, page number) and the full bibliographic information is supplied in the bibliography. Some styles of included referencing use p. or pp. to indicate page numbers. Others use a colon: between the year and the page number.

Format:

  1. If the writer’s name appears in the text of your essay, the remaining items of the citation will follow this in brackets,e.g. Beard (1970, pp. 91-92) argues that concept learning is important.

    (Here the actual argument is found on pages 91 and 92.)

    e.g. Fox (1967) demonstrates the close relationship between kinship and marriage in certain societies.

    (As this relationship is the theme of the whole book, no specific page references are given.)

  2. If the writer’s name does not appear in the text of your essay, the reference must include his or her family name within the brackets and should come at the end of a sentence or immediately following a direct quotation.e.g. It has been argued that concept learning is important (Beard, 1970, pp. 91-92).

 

Comparison of referencing styles

 

Each style of referencing has characteristic advantages:

  1. Footnotes make it easy for the reader to identify a source immediately merely by glancing to the bottom of the page. However, lengthy footnotes, including comments and additional information, can be distracting and clumsy.
  2. Endnotes permit extended commentary and additional information, but require the reader to refer constantly between the actual text and the final pages of the essay.
  3. Included references are extremely efficient but can only identify a source and allow no room for additional comments.

In order to demonstrate these styles of referencing more clearly, we have taken a passage from a student’s prehistory essay and used included references in version 1 and footnotes in version 2. Endnotes represent the version 2 style, except that the citations for the whole essay would be listed at the end.

Version 1

The work of van Lawick-Goodall (1971), Kortlandt and van Zon (1968), and Wright (1972) shows that present-day chimpanzees, orangutans and macaque monkeys are capable of using simple tools and bipedal locomotion. Wright (1972, p. 305) concluded, after tool-using experiments with a captive orangutan, that manipulative disability is not a factor which would have prevented Australopithecinesfrom mastering the fundamentals of tool technology. However, while there is an unquestionable validity in comparing the behaviour of present-day apes with early hominids, it is important to note, as Howells (1973, p. 53) says, ‘a Pantroglodyte is not and cannot be the ancestor of man. He cannot be an ancestor of anything but future chimpanzees.’

However, van Lawick-Goodall (1971, p. 233) suggests that the modern chimpanzee shows a type of intelligence closer to that of man than is found in any other present-day mammal. She argues that

…the chimpanzee is, nevertheless, a creature of immense signifance to the understanding of man…He has the ability to solve quite complex problems, he can use and make tools for a variety of purposes. Who knows what the chimpanzees will be like forty million years hence? (van Lawick-Goodall, 1971, pp. 244-245).

The bibliography following the essay from which this passage was taken includes the following items:

Howells, W. (1973), Evalution of the Genus Homo, Addison-Wesley, New York.

Kortlandt, A. & van Zon, J. C. J. (1968), ‘The present state of research on the dehuminization hypothesis of African ape evolution’. Proc. 2nd Int. Cong. Primatol., Atlanta, pp. 10-13.

Van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1971), In the Shadow of Man, Collins, London.

Wright, R.V. S. (1972), ‘Imitative learning of a flaked-stone technology’, Mankind 8, pp. 296-306.

Version 2

The work of van Lawick-Goodall,1 Kortlandt and van Zon,2 and Wright3 shows that present-day chimpanzees, orangutans and macaque monkeys are capable of using simple tools and bipedal locomotion. Wright concluded, after tool-using experiments with a captive orangutan, that manipulative disability is not a factor which would have prevented Australopithecines from mastering the fundamentals of tool technology.4 However, while there is unquestionable validity in comparing the behaviour of present-day apes with early hominids, it is important to note, as Howells says, ‘a Pantroglodyte is not and cannot be the ancestor of man. He cannot be an ancestor of anything but future chimpanzees.’5

However, van Lawick-Goodall suggests that the modern chimpanzee shows a type of intelligence closer to that of man than is found in any other present-day mammal.6 She argues that

…the chimpanzee is, nevertheless a creature of immense significance to the understanding of man…He has the ability to solve quite complex problems, he can use and make tools for a variety of purposes…Who knows what the chimpanzees will be like forty million years hence?7

 


1 J. van Lawick-Goodall (1971), In the Shadow of Man, Collins.
2 A. Kortlandt & J. C. J. van Zon (1968), ‘The present state of research on the dehumanization hypothesis of African ape evolution’, Proc.2nd Int.Congr.Primatol, Atlanta, pp. 10-13.
3 R.V.S.Wright (1972), ‘Imitative learning of a flaked-stone technology’, Mankind 8, pp. 296-306.
ibid., p. 305.
5 Howells (1973), Evolution of the Genus Homo, Addison-Wesley p. 53.
6 van Lawick-Goodall, op.cit., p. 233.
ibid., pp. 244-245.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.